Moscow, the capital city of Russia, has been the biggest political, industrial, scientific and cultural center in the erstwhile Soviet Union too. It is located in the center of the European part of the country on the banks of the river 'Moskva', in the moderate continental climate zone and has an average temperature in January of 11 degrees centigrade below zero and the temperature in July is + 19 degrees centigrade
After the abolition of serfdom in 1861, Moscow began to develop rapidly into a capitalist town with numerous factories and mills. It become the capital of the first Socialist State in March 1908. Nazi armies were halted and defeated just outside Moscow during the Second World War. In recognition of its bravery and valour in the Second World War, Moscow was awarded the title of the HERO CITY.
Moscow is a center of science and education. It is the seat of the former USSR academy of sciences, several academies of specific sciences and hundreds of research establishments. It has nearly 18 higher educational institutions attended by almost 7 lakh students including 20,000 from foreign countries including India. There are 4000 thousand public libraries out of which the Lenin Library is the largest in the country.
Moscow is also the country's cultural and sports- center. It has more than 100 museums, exhibitions and show rooms, more than 30 professional theaters and concert halls, including the world-renowned Bolshoi Theater.The capital city is rich in parks and gardens. The biggest park in the city is the Gorky Park, which is situated on the banks of the river 'Moskva'. More than 30% of Moscow's area is covered with greenery.
Most of the new districts in Moscow are linked with the center by the underground train service, which may certainly be included in the list of the best places of interest of the capital city.
Saint Petersburg is a prestigious European city and one of the most beautiful cities of the world with a population of more than 5 million. The City is widely known as a center of education, science and culture. The combination of the European classic architecture and Russian traditions makes Saint Petersburg one of the most perfect cities of the world. There are more than 48 state universities and institutes with about 300 000 students, among them representatives from 80 countries of the world. They get knowledge from highly qualified teachers and world's famous scientists who are well known around the world.
A fine education can be received in Saint-Petersburg in all areas of knowledge: medical, technical, economic and humanitarian, and graduates work in every corner of the world and have achieved high results in their career and became big businessmen, ministers and presidents.
The knowledge level received by the students in the educational institutions of Saint-Petersburg is extremely high, and the diplomas are recognized and of high prestige in the whole world. Saint Petersburg is one of the most attractive cities for receiving higher education. This is because Saint Petersburg is a European educational center, high technologies and methods of training are utilized, and financially technical base is at a high level and is permanently updated. Special attention is drawn to scientific research works - simultaneously quite accessible by the cost of tuition fees for receiving higher education, residence and food supply.
The diploma given by higher educational institutions of Russia and especially of St. Petersburg, already tells of an intellectual, competent and highly qualified expert, that will always guarantee a well paid job, success in the career and great reputation.
There are a lot of young students from about 30 countries of the world studying at higher educational institutions in Saint Petersburg.
Nizhni Novgorod, Russia's third largest city is an exciting city to live in. Unlike Moscow and St. Petersburg, with their large numbers of Westerners, Nizhni Novgorod offers insights into life in Russia's heartland. In previous centuries, Nizhni Novgorod was a commercial hub of Russia, located at the strategic confluence of the Oka and Volga rivers. Today it is the "test site" for democratic reform and free market initiatives. Located at the confluence of the Oka and the Volga rivers, Nizhni Novgorod has been an economical and cultural centre of the vast Volgo-Vyatsky region. The total area of Nizhny Novgorod exceeds 200 square miles. With its 1.5 million population the city is the 3rd biggest city in Russia. It was a closed city for the past 45 years; it was also known to Westerners as the city to which Andrei Sakharov was exiled.
The Russian chronicles say that Nizhni Novgorod was founded by the Grand Prince Yuri in 1221. The convenient location of the town on the confluence of two great rivers (the Volga and the Oka) predetermined the main tasks of the new town; protection against invasions and development of trade.
From the very beginning the town was surrounded by a moat, and a wooden Kremlin was erected.
In 1350 Nizhni Novgorod became the capital of the Nizhni Novgorod pricipality. The prince's palace, stone cathedrals, and monasteries were built in the Kremlin. The new capital began to develop trade and crafts, and began to construct a new system of fortifications and to mint its own coins.
In the beginning of the fourteenth century the construction of the stone Kremlin was finished. After the merger of Nizhni Novgorod, the city lost its military importance and began to develop trade and shipping. Its location at the intersection of the most significant East-West trade routes worked to its advantage.
In 1817 the celebrated trade fair in Makaryev was transferred to Nizhni Novgorod, and at that time Nizhni Novgorod became a city of international importance. The merchants from Russia and many European and Asian countries gathered in our city in order to trade and to engage in profitable enterprises. The fair influenced the reconstruction of the city, in which a large complex of fair buildings appeared.
Rozhdestvenskaja Street (now Mayakovskij Street) became the centre of Nizhni Novgorod. Hotels and restaurants, trading houses, the biggest, richest banks, and the offices of the shipbuilding companies were all located there. In the beginning of the twentieth century the main fair house, the Nizhni Novgorod branch of the State Bank (1913), and the Peoples House and Duma (1904) were built in our city. For the opening of the All-Russian Industrial Exhibition in 1896 the first funicular railway was built in Russia.
Nizhni Novgorod remained the industrial center in the USSR. In 1937 the biggest auto factory in Russia was founded here. But it was only in 1989, after the decline of communist regime, that the fair was revived.